Dogs can get all the same illnesses people get, including diabetes
You will need to worm your dog regularly. By regularly about every 3 months or so however this varies for lots of reasons. You can tell when your dog needs worming as it drags their bottom on the ground regularly. Worming medicine varies a lot so the best advice will come from your vetinarian.
The vets advise me that whatever is OK for us to use is OK for dogs. The difference is in the dosage and some other minor issues. Please don’t try and cut things like Amoxicillin to suit your dogs weight. Go to the vet and get things properly diagnosed and treated.
For the usual cuts scratches and other things simply use what you use on yourself. Just be wary as dogs can have allergic reactions as well. A good swim in salt water does them wonders.
Dogs need to be vaccinated properly for Parvo and I would recommend a once a year heart worm shot, its cheaper in the long run than buying it month by month. You will need these shots to be up to date to be assessed for the public access test. In certain areas paralysis ticks can be a real issue. You can get quality flea and tick medicine from any vet or pet store.
If you see a dog dragging its back legs get it straight to the vet, almost 100% certain it would be paralysis tick. They can die quite quickly from this.
Giving your dog pills and other medicine.
This is where the fun starts big time. Dogs know medicine when they smell it and are quite often reluctant to take it. You can try hiding it in cheese, ham or whatever but they do smell medicine and refuse to take it. All the good doggy and words of encouragement wont change their mind. The easy way is to push it down the back of their throat and I mean right down then allow just a little jaw movement for them to swallow. Works every time. You wont choke them at all, trust me on that.